Clay, cast-iron, and copper pipes have played a prominent role in plumbing history. The order of usage is not exactly that, and the list of clay, cast, and copper omits many commonly used pipe materials.
Cast-iron pipe, though used as early as 1455 in Europe, did not become common in the USA until the early 1900’s, as modern casting factories were needed to be able to produce it in quantities that could be sold at a price ordinary people could afford. Indoor plumbing was not common in the United States until the the 19th and even the early 20th centuries. So what pipes were used? None at all. An ordinary home or farmhouse had a well and or a cistern, an outhouse, and chamber pots for indoor urgency.
Of course we require indoor plumbing now, and chamber pots are collectibles or quaint planters. Our modern plumbing technicians can still use clay, cast-iron, and copper pipes. But your local plumbing contractor can now recommend a wide array of more modern materials for your next plumbing project.